The disturbance in the balance of the different components of environment in the world is called Pollution.
Now a days the growth of population, industrialization and deforestation have contributed to the pollution. This pollution has affected the lives of human beings and other species considerably.
There are many pollutants but Air, Water and Soil pollutants are most important among them. We can explain them as follows —
Air as Pollutant : The pollution caused by air is air pollution and the agent the pollute the air and unbalance the ecosystem are known as air pollutants.
Air is essential for living beings. There is a definite proportion of gases in the atmosphere.
When undesirable elements are mixed in the air, the fundamental balance is disturbed, which is dangerous for the living beings. This process is called Air Pollution.
The main sources of air pollution are stationary combustion sources, mobile combustion sources, industrial processing.
When coal and wood are burnt, the dangerous gases like carbon monoxide. Hydrogen, Sulphur dioxide and other harmful gases are produced.
Locomotives, automobiles aircraft, etc. are the major source of air pollution.
The major pollutant from these are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and lead.
In addition to the radioactive material like Uranium, Plutonium etc. are produced in atomic reactors which are responsible for air pollution.
Polluted air causes respiratory disorders such as peri bronchitis, emphysema and lung cancer, specially in children.
Air pollution has a serious harmful effect on vegetation. Growth of lichens on trees in inhabited by air pollution.
Air pollution also causes wide spread damage to livestock.
Attempts to control air pollution at the source are made in two ways —
- By separating the pollutants from the harmless gases and
- By converting the pollutants into innocuous products before their release in the atmosphere.
The most important method of conversion of pollutant is oxidation in air. Other methods of conversion of pollutants include chemical neutralization of acids and bases.
Water as Pollutant : Water pollution adversely changes the quality of water. It disturbs or destroys the balance of ecosystems and it causes hazards to public health.
Soil erosion, leaching of minerals from rocks, decaying of organic matter are natural sources of water pollution.
Sprayed pesticides and fertilizers are diffuse sources. Discharge of waste water from homes and commercial and industrial establishments is also as important source of water pollution.
Water pollution is mainly due to lack of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the water, mixing of unwanted material and presence of bacteria of dangerous diseases, corpses and carcasses, besides festering weeds also contribute to the pollution of water.
Like air pollution, water pollution tolls upon the health of man. Jaundice, cholera, typhoid fever are owing to the drinking of polluted water.
As river water becomes polluted it adversely affects aquatic creatures.
To prevent the pollution of water rubbish should be consigned to a pit Water flowing through sewer should be inducted into the river after it is purified.
The water containing pesticides should not be allowed to flow into the river and tank water. People should not have bath or wash dirty clothes into tanks meant for drinking water.
Soil as Pollutant : Salt, minerally carbonic substances gases and water are fond proportionately in soil decomposers suffer on account of some harmful chemicals.
As a result dead and rotten carbonic substances accumulate in the atmosphere disturbing the ecological balance.
This change in the proportion and mass of different substances in soil is called Soil Pollution.
Fertilizers for agricultural purpose is one of the causes of soil pollution. The best reason is the spraying of pesticides D.D.T., gammaxene and Eldrin.
Mixed with soil a part of it is dislodged from one place to another causing soil pollution.
These also affect human health adversely. These breed different diseases in the human body.
Thus perhaps in the reason that the use of D.D.T. has been banned in some countries
Indigenous manure should be used in place of artificial fertilizers. Cereals treated with pesticides should be washed sufficiently before they are used. The less the use of pesticides on crops, the better it is.
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